To research market, wellness updates, and you will comorbidity differences when considering schizophrenia caregivers, and you may non-caregiver control, and you may between schizophrenia caregivers, and other caregivers, bivariate analyses was basically performed.
Covariates noted significantly more than (demographics and you may fitness attributes) were inserted on the just one logistic regression design to expect getting proper care to help you a grown-up diligent having schizophrenia vs. maybe not providing care and attention. Several other separate logistic regression design is cost expect providing care and attention to a grown-up diligent with schizophrenia versus. the individuals taking look after adults https://datingranking.net/artist-dating/ which have a disorder other than schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was in fact paired so you can non-caregiver or any other caregiver participants toward propensity get using the “greedy” matching formula . A-1:2 coordinating proportion is actually used, for every schizophrenia caregiver is actually paired so you’re able to two non-caregiver control participants and you may independently to several caregivers of most other criteria. Post-matches, differences between these types of teams had been re-examined to ensure enough matching. And, new matching try restricted in order that all suits was basically in this for each and every 5EU nation.
Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.
All in all, 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 low-caregivers control and you may 14,341 caregivers off other conditions have been understood through 5EU NHWS around the 2010, 2011 and 2013. Inside overall try out-of 173,728 people over the 5EU, twenty five.4 % had been for the France, twenty five.step 3 % inside the Germany, twenty-five.six % in britain, fourteen.0 % in the Italy, and you may 9.6 % in The country of spain.
Schizophrenia caregivers versus. non-caregivers
The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).
After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).
Schizophrenia versus. other caregivers
Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).